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Контрольная работа 4 для студентов заочного отделения 

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Контрольная работа 4 для студентов заочного отделения

Контрольная работа № 4
для студентов заочного отделения.

Чтобы правильно выполнить задание № 4, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы кур-са английского языка по рекомендованному учебнику:
1. Условные предложения трех типов.
2. Сложные формы инфинитива и причастия.
3. Обороты, равнозначные придаточным предложениям: объективный инфинитивный оборот; субъективный инфинитивный оборот; независимый (самостоятельный) инфинитивный оборот.

I. Переведите предложения:
1. You wouldn’t have so much trouble with your car if you didn’t let other people use it so often.
2. If he agreed to speak at the conference, we’d all be very happy.
3. It would be very convenient for me if we could put off our appointment till next Thursday.
4. If I were him, I’d think twice before giving a definite answer.
5. The road’s so icy. I’d be especially careful at the wheel if I were you.
6. I wouldn’t be surprised if they didn’t agree with us.
7. I shouldn’t be surprised if he were late again.

II.Соедините 2 высказывания в одно:
Образец: ДАНО: You don’t look after you car, and that’s the reason it gives you so much trouble.
ТРЕБУЕТСЯ: If you looked after your car, it wouldn’t give you so much trouble.
1. Not everybody’s here, so we can’t get down to business yet.
2. They don’t speak to the point. We waste too much time.
3. I don’t believe his story - I don’t know all the facts.
4. I’m ill, I’ll have to put off our appointment.

III.Переведите предложения:
1. We’d have stayed there longer if the weather hadn’t changed.
2. Wouldn’t you have agreed if you were me?
3. If I were you, I wouldn’t have believed it.
4. Believe me, if I’d had at least five free minutes to talk to you yesterday, I’d have done so.
5. We’d have contacted them if the matter had been urgent.

IV.Переведите предложения:
1. We are friends, and I naturally want him to be perfectly frank with me.
2. The Director General wants us to compare all those projects and say what we think of them.
3. I didn’t expect the discussion to be so tiring.
4. Frankly, we had expected them to find a better place for the exhibition.
5. Everybody expected the talks to be a success.
6. We didn’t expect the matter to be so complicated.

V.Перефразируйте, как показано в образце:
Образец: ДАНО: I want to have a good holiday (my children).
ТРЕБУЕТСЯ: I want my children to have a good holiday.
1. I want to make all the arrangements in good time (the managers).
2. I’d like to leave a message with the secretary (Mr. Bentley).
3. They wanted to fulfil all their obligations (their counterparts).
4. She wanted to impress the public (her article).

VI. Перефразируйте, как показано в образце:
Образец: ДАНО: We didn’t expect that the game would be so tiring.
ТРЕБУЕТСЯ: We didn’t expect the game to be so tiring.
1. Nobody expected that so much damage would be done by the flood.
2. We didn’t expect that the weather would be so changeable.
3. We expect that the time and date will be convenient for everybody.
4. I didn’t expect that they would quarrel over such an unimportant thing.

VII.Переведите предложения:
1. We watched the coach giving last-minute instructions to the players.
2. We saw the policeman go to the driver and say something to him.
3. I’ve never heard him say anything unfair.
4. We heard that after the last injury he was no longer fit to take part in serious competitions.
5. I didn’t notice you come in.
6. I noticed that he wasn’t particularly interested in the conversation.

VIII.Соедините два предложения в одно как показано в образце:
Образец: ДАНО: Someone locked the front door. I heard it.
ТРЕБУЕТСЯ: I heard someone lock the front door.
1. Jane congratulated Anne and Tom on their success. We all heard it.
2. Jill parked her car in Albert Road. I saw it.
Образец: ДАНО: Jane was waiting for somebody. I saw her.
ТРЕБУЕТСЯ: I saw Jane waiting for somebody.
1. Alice was talking to a colleague in Spanish. I heard it.
2. Bill Blake was changing money in a bank. The detective saw it.
3. Jill was parking her car. I saw it.

IX.Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на независимый причастный оборот:
1. There being no more questions to be discussed at the meeting, the chairman declared it closed.
2. The performance (представление) being over, everybody went home.
3. It being early, there were few people in the streets.
4. The tourists were walking along the streets, with the guide (гид) explaining the history of the town.

X.Прочитайте и письменно переведите тексты:
The American System of Government
The governmental systems in the United States - federal, state, county, and local - are quite easy to understand, that is, if you grew up with them and studied them in school. One foreign expert com-plained, for example, that the complexity of just the cities' political and governmental structure is "al-most unbelievable." The "real Chicago," he explained ", spreads over 2 states, 6 counties, 10 towns, 30 cities, 49 townships, and 110 villages. Overlaid upon this complex pattern are 235 tax districts and more than 400 school districts..."
There are, however, several basic principles which are found at all levels of American govern-ment. One of these is the "one person, one vote" principle which says that legislators are elected from geographical districts directly by the voters. Under this principle, all election districts must have about the same number of residents.
Another fundamental principle of American government is that because of the system of checks and balances, compromise in politics is a matter of necessity, not choice. For example, the House of Representatives controls spending and finance, so the President must have its agreement for his pro-posals and programmes. He cannot declare war, either, without the approval of Congress. In foreign affairs, he is also strongly limited. Any treaty must first be approved by the Senate. If there is no ap-proval, there's no treaty. The rule is "the President proposes, but Congress disposes." What a President wants to do, therefore, is often a different thing from what a President is able to do.
The President and Federal Departments
The President of the United States is elected every four years to a four-year term of office, with no more than two full terms allowed. As is true with Senators and Representatives, the President is elected directly by the voters (through state electors). In other words, the political party with the most Senators and Representatives does not choose the President. This means that the President can be from one party, and the majority of those in the House of Representatives or Senate (or both) from another. This is not uncommon.
Thus, although one of the parties may win a majority in the midterm elections (those held every two years), the President remains President, even though his party may not have a majority in either house. Such a result could easily hurt his ability to get legislation through Congress, which must pass all laws, but this is not necessarily so. In any case, the President's policies must be approved by the House of Representatives and the Senate before they can become law. In domestic as well as in foreign policy, the President can seldom count upon the automatic support of Congress, even when his own party has a majority in both the Senate and the House. Therefore, he must be able to convince Con-gressmen, the Representatives and Senators, of his point of view. He must bargain and compromise. This is a major difference between the American system and those in which the nation's leader repre-sents the majority party or parties, that is parliamentary systems.
Within the Executive Branch, there are a number of executive departments. Currently these are the departments of State, Treasury, Defence, Justice, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, Labour, Health and Human Resources, Housing and Urban Development, Transportation, Energy, and Education. Each department is established by law, and, as their names indicate, each is responsible for a specific area. The head of each department is appointed by the President. These appointments, however, must be approved by the Senate. None of these Secretaries, as the department heads are usually called, can also be serving in Congress or in another part of the government. Each is directly responsible to the President and only serves as long as the President wants him or her to. They can best be seen, therefore, as Presidential assistants and advisers. When they meet together, they are termed "the President's Cabinet." Some Presidents have relied quite a bit on their Cabinets for advice, and some very little.

XI. Прочитайте тексты и передайте их основное содержание своими словами:
Federal Departments
The Department of State, headed by the Secretary of State, advises the President on foreign re-lations. This department handles all peaceful dealings with other countries, and issues passports to American citizens who wish to travel abroad, and visas to visitors to the United States.
The Treasury Department manages government finances, collects taxes, mints coins and prints paper money. The Secret Service, which protects the President and the Vice President, their families and some other dignitaries, is also part of the Treasury Department. So are the Bureau of Customs and the Internal Revenue Service.
The Department of Defence is responsible for the nations security. The Secretary of Defence is assisted by the Secretaries of the Army, Navy and Air Force.
The Department of Justice, headed by the Attorney General, acts for the government in legal matters and moves against violators of federal laws. The FBI and federal prisons are under his jurisdic-tion.
The Department of the Interior protects and develops the nation's natural resources and man-ages the national parks. It also enforces federal hunting and fishing laws, checks on the safety of mines and is responsible for the welfare of the Indian tribes.
The Department of the Agriculture aids food production and looks after the interests of farmers. 1t issues numerous reports on the supply and prices of farm products, conducts scientific studies of ag-riculture and lends money to build rural electric systems. Most farms today are served by-electricity.
The Department of Labour is concerned with the working conditions, safety and welfare of the nation’s nonfarm workers. It enforces, among others, the laws on minimum wages and maximum hours for workers. The department's mediation and conciliation service helps employers and workers to settle labour disputes.
The Department of Commerce helps develop domestic commerce as well as trade with other countries, particularly in the mining, manufacturing and transportation industries. One of its important branches issues patents for new inventions; other test products to be sure they meet high standards and report on weather conditions.
In 1979 the Department of Health, Education and Welfare was reorganized into two separate agencies: the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Department of Education. HHS administers many of the nation's social services programmes on a federal level. The Department of Education administers and co-ordinates more than 150 federal aid-to-education programmes.
The Cabinet-level Department of Housing and Urban Development was created in 1965 to help provide adequate housing, particularly for low-income groups, and to foster large-scale urban renewal programmes.
In 1966 President Lyndon Johnson proposed, and Congress approved, the establishment of a Department of Transportation to co-ordinate transportation activities previously carried on by several government agencies.
The Department of Enter, created in 1977 to address the nation's growing energy problems, consolidated the major federal energy functions into single Cabinet-level department. It is responsible for research, development and demonstration of energy technology; energy conservation; the nuclear weapons programme; regulation of energy production and use; pricing and allocation; and a central en-ergy data collection and analysis programme.
In addition to the executive departments, there are numerous independent agencies charged with special functions. Largest of these is the Postal Service, directed by an 11-member board of gov-ernors, which was created in 1979 to replace the Post Office Department. It operates post offices, is responsible for handling and delivery of mail and issues stamps.
Other independent regulatory agencies set rules and standards in such fields as rail and air transportation, domestic trade practices, broadcasting licenses and telephone and telegraph rates, in-vestment trading, some banking practices, and equal employment opportunities.
The Federal Judiciary
The third branch of government, in addition to the legislative (Congress) and executive (Presi-dent) branches, is the federal judiciary. Its main instrument is the Supreme Court, which watches over the other two branches. It determines whether or not their laws and acts are in accordance with the Constitution. Congress has the power to fix the number of judges sitting on the Court, but it cannot change the powers given to the Supreme Court by the Constitution itself. The Supreme Court consists of a chief justice and eight associate justices. They are nominated by the President but must be ap-proved by the Senate. Once approved, they hold office as Supreme Court Justices for life. A decision of the Supreme Court cannot be appealed to any other court. Neither the President nor Congress can change their decisions. In addition to the Supreme Court, Congress has established 11 federal courts of appeal and, below them, 91 federal district courts.
The Supreme Court has direct jurisdiction in only two kinds of cases: those involving foreign diplomats and those in which a state is a party. All other cases which reach the Court are appeals from lower courts. The Supreme Court chooses which of these it will hear. Most of the cases involve the in-terpretation of the Constitution. The Supreme Court also has the "power of judicial review," that is, it has the right to declare laws and actions of the federal, state, and local governments unconstitutional. While not stated in the Constitution, this power was established over time.

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